An essay on the relationship between the natives and the corps of discovery

Despite Jefferson's assertion that Lewis was chosen for his "familiarity with the Indian character," the young officer had neither fought Indians nor lived with them. He urged Oto and Missouri chiefs to form a delegation to visit the great Washington chief. The Captains successfully avoided open conflict, and after a tense meeting the Sioux agreed to let them pass.

lewis and clark biography

He said that the Otos had always been friendly with white traders, whether they were English or French. Taking this as a hopeful sign, Lewis and Clark confidently raised a flagstaff and waited anxiously for their native guests.

Those new lands were for traders, not white settlers.

Lewis and clark expedition secondary sources

But once the purchase was diplomatic reality, announcing American sovereignty to native people became a vital part of the expedition's Indian policy. In fact, the expedition had to make its way on the Lolo Trail across the vast Bitterroot Mountains, already covered with snow in September. According to the National Park Service : These reports contained measurements and observations of its course and its surrounding flora, fauna, tributaries and inhabitants…Lewis and Clark described at least plants and animals - including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish …New species that the Corps of Discovery encountered included pronghorn, bighorn sheep… mountain beaver, long-tailed weasel, mountain goat, coyote and various species of rabbit, squirrel, fox and wolf… They sent back descriptions, zoological specimens, and even a few live animals. But Lewis and Clark, surrounded by bright mirrors and yards of red flannel, offered more than goods. Situated on Wood River across the Mississippi from St. This was Sergeant Charles Floyd, who probably died of a ruptured appendix as the Corps of Discovery traveled up the Missouri River on its way to the Mandan villages. He also had delivered in January the confidential message to Congress that justified the expedition on grounds of extending the Indian trade. The delegates at Council Bluff did nothing so dramatic, but they may have wondered about the economic consequences of new flags and medals hearing unfamiliar faces. Medals and certificates went to warriors like Big Axe and Black Cat. However, encounters with Native Americans were not always favorable. The United States expanded significantly by acquiring the Oregon and California territories. But it was not to be, and after they carefully explained the reasons for such punishment, the whole unhappy affair was done. Soulard prepared the Spanish version in —95 at the direction of Governor Carondelet to guide the explorations of Jean Baptiste Truteau. Soulard's map demonstrated with remarkable accuracy the locations of western Indians at the end of the eighteenth century.

In a letter to Jefferson, Lewis reported that he had obtained Evans and Mackay's journal material dating from to But there was something else behind Jefferson's requirement that the Lewis and Clark expedition be an ethnographic enterprise—something beyond sea otters and beaver pelts. As an experienced trader he knew the finer points of packaging and merchandising.

lewis and clark

But there was still one unanswered question, one nagging doubt that no talk, map, or journal could resolve. The party made only 12 or 14 miles on a good day. Among the maps that the explorers looked at was one Lewis described as "a general map of Uper Louisiana.

Although the Omahas were less powerful in the face of mounting Sioux influence, their absence from home was a major disappointment. The first modern edition was the work of Elliott Coues, who published a four-volume rendition of the journals in

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Lewis & Clark among the Indians The Voyage Begins