The out of africa thesis maintains that

At , years old, the five hominids represent the best-dated evidence of an early "pre-modern" phase in Homo sapiens evolution.

We know most about which of the following western hemisphere civilizations

This population had originated from African ancestors within the last , years, but where it lived during the time of the bottleneck is not yet known. As they spread across Asia, the descendants of this bottlenecked population mixed with Neanderthals and with another archaic human population, the Denisovans. The research was an international effort, with researchers from Tartu in Estonia, Oxford, and Stanford in California all contributing key data and expertise. Today, the vast majority of scholars have accepted that human beings evolved in Africa and migrated outward, likely in multiple dispersals. Stone tools at the site are from the Middle Stone Age, and the assemblage includes Levallois flakes, scrapers, and unifacial points. At this site, a large community of hominins was found to encompass a wider range of skeletal morphology than was previously considered within one species. Lamb, Henry F. At the same time, modern humans from other parts of the world show some skeletal similarities and a small proportion of genetic similarities with earlier archaic human populations from those areas, including the Neanderthals. Those have changed the picture substantially from the turn of the century.

The paleontological community is still somewhat divided on what that means to this ancient debate: John Hawks argues that "we are all multiregionalists now," but Chris Stringer recently disagreed by saying "we are all out-of-Africanists who accept some multi-regional contributions.

Long-term regional continuity in certain morphological traits is explained by Alan Thorne 's "Centre and Edge" [30] population genetics model which resolves Weidenreich's paradox of "how did populations retain geographical distinctions and yet evolve together?

The correct chronological flow of buddhism would be

However, recent evidence has shown that some sexual interaction between Hss and Denisovans and Neanderthals occurred, although at present their contribution to Homo sapiens DNA is considered fairly minor. This would suggest that there was very little gene flow into Australia after the original migration. Hublin, Jean-Jacques. It is possible that the later Hss interacted with the descendants of the earlier pulse as well. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. Those species are no longer with us except as tiny pieces of DNA. Hershkovitz, Israel. Hawks, John.

The researchers wrote that teeth toward the front of the mouth from Eurasians had more "morphological robusticity," such as a triangular, shovel shape.

They concluded that the diversity of these recent humans could not "result exclusively from a single late Pleistocene dispersal", and implied dual ancestry for each region, involving interbreeding with Africans.

Humans have low genetic variation today, and this variation is highest in Africa, and much lower in other parts of the world.

Some scientists describe the current picture as a multiregional evolution scenario, others describe it as an out of Africa scenario, and still others describe it as a blend or middle ground between the two.

This branch was African.

An example of diffusion in ap world history would be

Some scholars argue that these discrepancies exist either because the early colonists interbred with the local Homo erectus population, or because there was a subsequent, secondary migration from Africa. Both hypotheses have to account for the same basic set of facts: Humans first left Africa and established populations in other parts of the world first southern Asia, China, and Java, later Europe by 1. Fossil evidence of any kind this old is rare and it may be too early to completely rule that out. No hominid remains were found within the Lower Member, but it will likely be reevaluated given the results at Jebel Irhoud. The research team analyzed the choppers of human ancestors from the Pleistocene and late Pliocene epochs. Bailey, et al. Species, of course, are defined by reproductive isolation, so the evolution of these several species of humans was separate. Marean, Curtis W. Erik Trinkaus, a physical anthropologist at Washington University in St. Growing archaeological and genetic evidence supports this migration from southern Africa following the coasts eastward and into South Asia. Wolpoff stresses that regional continuity works in conjunction with genetic exchanges between populations. Long-term regional continuity in certain morphological traits is explained by Alan Thorne 's "Centre and Edge" [30] population genetics model which resolves Weidenreich's paradox of "how did populations retain geographical distinctions and yet evolve together?

Nicoll, Kathleen. That group, scholars believe, eventually led to the human colonization of Europe and Asia, and the eventual replacement of Neanderthals in Europe. But in the latest research there was no evidence of a genetic inheritance from Homo erectus, indicating that the settlers did not mix and that these people therefore share the same direct ancestry as the other Eurasian peoples.

understanding the big picture 8000 to 600 bce

The differences in the archaeological record are probably the result of this, rather than any secondary migration or interbreeding.

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Did Humans First Evolve in Africa?